Wednesday, February 5, 2020

Newton, Leibniz, and the Invention of Calculus Essay

Newton, Leibniz, and the Invention of Calculus - Essay Example The theorem was the start of the Newton’s mathematical innovation (Dunham 6). In 1666, Newton made his first contribution to calculus through the introduction of fluxions. In the late 1665 before his first publication, Newton had made studies on the tangent problems by combining velocity components of the moving points in a proper coordinate system. This was vital for the introduction of fluxions which is a key component in geometric applications (Edwards 191). Newton was capable of exploiting the concepts of antidifferentiation and differentiation by the substitution methods. This is the equivalent of what is called integration and chain rule by substitution. This is essential in the building of calculus of fluxions (Edwards 196). Newton applied the method of successive approximations in his De Analysi to the reversion of series. Newton proceeds further to use the technique of reversion of series in the discovery of sine and cosine series (Edwards

Tuesday, January 28, 2020

Adams equity theory

Adams equity theory 3.4. 4 Equity Theory Adams s (1965) equity theory is another form of motivation. In this model, like in expectancy theory, people are viewed as having thoughts, feeling, and opinions that affect their work. He also proposes that the social comparison process begins with the individuals assessment of what he or she need to puts into the job relative to what is received from it. That is, the person develops a cognitive ratio composed of the inputs to the job and the return (output) from it. Inputs Typically, inputs are consider as an effort, loyalty, hard work, commitment, skill, ability, adaptability, flexibility, tolerance, determination, heart and soul, enthusiasm, trust in our boss and superiors, support of colleagues and subordinates, personal sacrifice, etc. Outputs The outputs typically are define as financial rewards, for example pay salary, expenses, perks, benefits, pension arrangements, bonus and commission plus intangibles recognition, reputation, praise and thanks, interest, responsibility, stimulus, travel, training, development, sense of achievement and advancement, promotion, etc. According to Adams (1965), people who feel that there is fairness between inputs and outputs. T he output/input(O/I) ratio denotes the proportion of job inputs (I) to job outputs (O), and it expresses to the extent to which of the exchange is felt to be appropriate. People feel it will be fair if the exchange of the output is seen to be as equal as the input. When outputs are greater than inputs, people know they are overpaid, and conversely, when outputs are less than inputs, people feel underpaid. In a second phase of the process, people engage in social comparison. They begin by assessing the O/I ratios of others at work. Then, the person compares their self-ratio with the ratios of other significant persons. Discussions on Equity Theory Equity theory has been used as a guide for paying and motivation, particularly in terms of changes in the quality and quantity of performance. Reviewers of the research have reported that the predicted effects of underpayment on performance are well supported (Campbell and Pritchard, 1976; Goodman and Friedman, 1971). Decreased production among underpaid hourly subjects has been observed as predicted (Pritchard, Dunnette, and Jorgenson, 1972). Increased production coupled with decreased work quality among underpaid piece rate subjects also has been observed (Lawler and OGara, 1967). 3.4.6 Goal-setting Therory Like equity and expectancy theories, goal-setting theory is consider as a process theory. Locke (1968) initiated the original work on this theory. The theory identifies the contents of the motivational structure, but the greater emphasis is on the process of motivation. Goals are the central feature of the motivational structure. His studies resulted in three main conclusions: More difficult goals result in higher levels of performance than easy goals. This is the first conclusion. The outcomes of a series of experiments showed that â€Å"although subjects with very hard goals reached their goals far less often than subjects with very easy goals, the former consistently performed at a higher level than the latter† (Lock, 1968). Specific goals produce higher levels of performance than general goals (e.g. ‘Do your best!) Locke suggests that one of the features of specific, hard goals is that they prolong effort during the latter portions of long work sessions (Locke, 1968). Locke also reported on a study by Meyer, Kay and French (1965) into goal-setting during appraisal interviews. They found that the tasks that were translated into specific goals resulted in greater performance outcomes than tasks that were not. Behavioural intentions influence the choices people make. This is the final conclusion. Behavioural intention was defined as â€Å"the intention to make a certain task choice or to respond in a certain way† (Locke, 1968). In other words, Locke concluded that the level of difficulty of a chosen goal depended on what the person undertaking the task was aiming to achieve. Discussions on Goal-setting Theory Goal-setting theory is useful to many managers because much of people management is specifically about performance against goals. It is also a theory that human resource professionals are likely to be familiar with because it is often focus on objectives. Although the Goal-setting theory specifically states that goals have to be considered valid for them to be motivating, the theory does not cover the issue of goal commitment according to Hollyforde and Whiddett (2002). Peoples commitment to a goal is an obviously key to anticipating their motivation to succeed at it. Carroll and Tosi (1973) reported that the self-esteem seems to be an important factor here. For example, managers with high self-esteem reported they were more persistent in meeting their goals than those managers with low self-esteem. In general, Goal-setting theory is a theory that has great relevance for managers. The three conclusions of the theory that suggest that the most motivating goals are not only specific but also challenging must ring true for many managers.

Sunday, January 19, 2020

Racial Profiling by Police Essay -- Race Racism Prejudice Essays

Racial profiling has become a severe obstacle in the U.S. today though most Americans know very little of this vital issue. Every day, people are being pulled over, harassed, and even killed for being of a certain race. There are new laws that politicians are trying to pass that promote racial discrimination. Racial profiling is immoral and does not increase public safety. Incarceration rates are a definite proof that racial discrimination occurs. â€Å"Incarceration rates in the United States have risen sharply since 1980†, stated Filip Spagnoli, â€Å"the racial distribution of inmates in the U.S. is highly negative for black Americans. Whereas they only make up 12% of the total U.S. population, they represent more than 40% of inmates† Black Americans are one of the many races that are accused of many crimes that they are innocent of and being imprisoned for them. Addy Bareiss, a five-year volunteer and worker at the ACLU of Arizona affirmed, â€Å"A 2008 report by the ACLU of Louisiana found that people of color were arrested at higher rates than their representation in the population in every town, city and parish examined† Imprisonment of innocent people has to come to a stop. When officers are focusing mainly on a certain group they overlook criminals of other races who deserve to be in prison. She also stated, â€Å"b lack and Hispanic residents were stopped, frisked, searched, and arrested by Los Angeles Police Department officers far more frequently than white residents, and that these disparities were not justified by local crime rates or by any other legitimate policing rationale evident from LAPD’s extensive data† (Bareiss, Addy). Stereotypes play a significant part of racial profiling. When officers see a black or Hispanic man... ...on=1.0>. "Jose Serrano." Xplore Inc, 2010. 30 November. 2010. Kennedy, Randall. "Racial Profiling Should Be Abolished." Current Controversies: Racism. Ed. Mary E. Williams. San Diego: Greenhaven Press, 2004. Opposing Viewpoints Resource Center. Gale. Raymond S Kellis High School. 29 Nov. 2010 . "Motivated Quotes." Brainy Quote. Xplore, Inc., BrainyQuote, 2001 - 2010. Web. 5 Dec 2010. . "The First 10 Amendments to the." n. pag. Web. 2 Dec 2010. . Spagnoli, Filip.

Saturday, January 11, 2020

European Type Jaw Crusher for Sale in India

European Type Jaw Crusher Brief Introduction: By adopting the world’s most advanced crushing and manufacturing technology, European type jaw crusher is mainly used for secondary and tertiary crushing of various medium-hard ores and rocks. European type jaw crusher has already become the most popular equipment in the world without controversy. It is the first choice for hard and strong abrasion material. [pic] Highlights: 1. Adopt world-level manufacturing techniques and raw materials. 2. Movable jaw assembly is made of high-quality cast steel piece.Forging blank is adopted for heavy eccentric shaft for processing, which makes the machine more reliable and endurable. 3. Integral cast steel structure is adopted for bearing saddle to guarantee full cooperation with crushing stander, which greatly enhances radial strength of bearing saddle. 4. Adoption of finite element analysis technology ensures much higher strength of the machine. 5. Crusher chamber adopts â€Å"V† struc ture which could make the actual feed width complies with the nominal one. 6. Adjustment device with discharge hole with wedge installed is simpler, safer and rapider than the old spacing piece. . Compared with crusher of other specifications, all machines of the series adopt more endurable and bigger eccentric shaft bearing; its higher bearing capacity and effective labyrinth seal make service life of bearing greatly prolonged. 8. The latest tooth-shaped guard plate is adopted to increase effective length of jaw plate and improve output. [pic] Working Principle: The motor transmits power through belt, drives the moving jaw to do periodic motion towards the fixed jaw by the eccentric shaft.The angle between toggle plate and moving jaw plate increases when moving jaw moves. So the moving jaw moves towards the fixed jaw. The stuff will be crushed in this process. The angle between toggle plate and moving jaw decreases when moving jaw moves down, the moving jaw moves leaves fixed jaw b y pulling rod and spring, the final crushed stuff will be discharged from the outlet. [pic] For more detailed information, please click here:http://www. crusherindustry. com/index. php/european-type-jaw-crusher/

Friday, January 3, 2020

The Product and Founder Related Issues of Mobile Home Accessory and Gift Shop Free Essay Example, 1500 words

The firm s success will be on the following; selling products that provide value and quality to the consumer. As well as meeting the needs for the expression of personal style (Beverly, 2010). The firms will also have a twenty-four customer service in place to direct as well as advising our clients on how to make use of our quality products. The business will advertise our products online in order to reach many customers having in mind that 70% of the people in San Diego are often online each day. Additionally, our firm will utilize other means of communications such as the magazine advertisement, website, and postcard mailing to reach the customers. Zaet mobile accessory and gift shop aims at establishing accessible, welcoming and visible storefront and website that will position the services and products within the marketplace and beyond (Hughes, 2008). The firm will be opened throughout the week and twenty-four hours in a day except during weekends. During weekends, the business will be opened from 12: 00 pm to 5: 00 pm. The firm will be staffed by one-time workers, working forty hours a week and other party time employees who will be working thirty hours a week. We will write a custom essay sample on The Product and Founder Related Issues of Mobile Home Accessory and Gift Shop or any topic specifically for you Only $17.96 $11.86/page The firm will accept the following forms of payment from the customers; visa, credit card, check, Cash, Master Card as well as American Express; travelers check and debit card. Defective and damaged items can be to our stores for refund or replacement. Our team of expert will always be on alert to attend to our customers at home or on site. Business potential and positioning of products and services

Thursday, December 26, 2019

Essay on Legalizing Marijuana A Dangerous Drug or a Powerful Cure

Legalization of cannabis has been a very controversial issue in the United States for a long time; even more so after several states have already passed the legislation lifting the ban. Should all marijuana be legal? Is it dangerous? What are the possible implications of this? It is one of these topics that people just cannot help but have diametrically opposite viewpoints on. For decades marijuana was considered to be a dangerous drug, leading to criminal behavior and personal degradation. However, by now most of these beliefs have been discredited – there is little to no proof that cannabis in and of itself has any adverse effects. Some studies even show that it is far less dangerous than many completely legal prescription drugs – both for its users and those around them. In addition to that, there is corroborative proof of marijuana’s positive medical effects. Cannabis is beneficial for epilepsy patients, it eases nausea caused by chemotherapy and shows good results when used by people suffering from AIDS, glaucoma, multiple sclerosis and a number of other conditions. In other words, legalization of cannabis can greatly improve the quality of life of all these people, while proof of its lasting or even temporary adverse effects remains more than scarce. But even if we take medical use of cannabis aside, let’s ask ourselves a simple question: the war on drugs has been raging for decades, billions of government spending have been poured down this sinkhole, hundreds of thousands of people were convicted on drug charges, tens of thousands are getting killed in drug wars in Mexico and South America – yet the results are less than nil. Drug trade is running rampant, tens of thousands die in drug-related shootings and gang warfare, prisons are overfilled with people charged with possession or selling drugs (and a large percentage of them has been arrested over finding a tiny amount of marijuana on them), time in prison makes it difficult for these people to find proper jobs later on, again pushing them towards criminal activities, thousands of addicts die due to overdose. It seems that Prohibition era should have taught us that criminalizing an activity doesn’t make it disappear – it simply procreates organized crime. Most narcotic drugs are relatively simple and cheap in production – their high prices are caused by their illegal status and dangers accompanying producing and selling them. The war on drugs is exactly what causes drug mafia to exist in the first place – and in the long run, losses from the war on drugs by far exceed any positive effects it may have. That is the prime reason to legalize marijuana and, ideally, drugs in general. It is impossible to eliminate them. It is impossible to protect people from themselves. If somebody wants to follow his or her self-destructive tendencies, it is not the state’s job to be his or her nanny. If drugs are legalized and cheap, a drug addict is very unlikely to harm anybody but himself – and we should take into account a greatly diminished risk of overdose, infection and other dangers accompanying illicit drugs.

Wednesday, December 18, 2019

The Issue of Affirmative Action Essay - 816 Words

The Issue of Affirmative Action A major controversy encompassing the country is the issue of affirmative action. Many believe that the abolition, or at least restructure, of affirmative action in the United States will benefit the nation for many logical reasons. Originally, affirmative action began as an attempt to eliminate discrimination and provide a source of opportunity; affirmative action did not begin as an attempt to support just minorities and women. In addition, affirmative action naturally creates resentment when the less qualified are preferred instead of the people actually deserve the admission or job. Another reason that has existed since the abolition of slavery is the myth that women and ?minorities? cannot compete†¦show more content†¦There are three applicants for the job offering. One applicant is a white male age 35 who has six years of on the job experience. The other three are an Asian female, black male, and white female. Two of these minority applicants have no practical experie nce and the other only a few years. In order for the company to meet the quota, the company must automatically reject the white male and only look at the other three applicants. The company now is no longer looking for good experienced employees; instead, they are trying to appear fair. This so called ?equal opportunity? is not what it says. This means that they provide ?equal opportunity for minorities.? They are now discriminating against majorities, which goes against the original initiative for civil rights. Affirmative action is actually dividing the country into two different racial categories: all minorities against the majority. This causes severe resentment towards those minorities who are less qualified yet are preferred because they feel sympathy or pity towards them. When trying to apply and qualify for scholarships an applicant will find that the majority of the scholarships are for minority or specific race only descendants. This disqualifies everyone who needs the sch olarship, but was not born under a certain type of ancestry. One major misunderstanding encompassing the people today is the myth that women and other ?minorities? cannot compete withShow MoreRelatedThe Issue Of Affirmative Action Essay1667 Words   |  7 Pagesthe content of their character† for this reason affirmative action in higher education admission should be altered for it creates a perpetually racial preference in admission. Affirmative action is controversial due it s issue of whether the generation of today should pay for the past injustices done to certain ethnicities. It questions the constitutionality of its existence and whether it perpetuates racial discrimination. Although affirmative action is a great start in promoting diversity and exposingRead MoreThe Issue Of Affirmative Action2006 Words   |  9 Pagesultimate goal for our generation. We want to see equal opportunities for everyone regardless of sex, race, or nationality. The term affirmative action has been the center of national debate in the recent history with liberals, both black and white, arguing that affirmative action levels the playing field and makes up for historical prejudice and discrimination. Affirmative action means minorities that are any underrepresented group defined by race, ethnicity, or gender are preferably admitted to universitiesRead MoreThe Issue Of Affirmative Action950 Words   |  4 Pages On the contrary, s upports of affirmative action feel that this law is still needed in America to help places of higher education have more diversity which will benefit companies in the long run and it also helps companies be more diverse and it helps them thrive. In the past few decades the number of minorities and females in places of higher education and companies have been rising at a slow rate. During 2012, the health care industry was suffering from lack of medical personal in the medicalRead MoreLegal Issues Of Affirmative Action1528 Words   |  7 Pagesmust be familiar with legal obligations in regards to their diversity efforts policies in order to be fully compliant and successful in their endeavors. Legal Issues Pertaining to Diversity in Higher Education Today When addressing legal issues of diversity in the modern day era, one main topic is brought to discussion, affirmative action. It was put into place by the federal government in the 1960’s and was initially developed to close the gap in relation to the privileged majority and the unprivilegedRead MoreWhy Is Affirmative Action Such a Divisive Issue?2126 Words   |  9 PagesAFFIRMATIVE ACTION: WHY IS AFFIRMATIVE ACTION SUCH A DIVISIVE ISSUE? 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The main type of discrimination being addressed by Affirmative Action programs was racial discrimination. The Merriam Webster dictionary defines racism as: ‘a belief that race is the primary determinant ofRead MoreAffirmative Action1559 Words   |  7 PagesRESEARCH PAPER AFFIRMATIVE ACTION INTRODUCTION Affirmative Action is an employment legislation protection system that is intended to address the systemized discrimination faced by women and minorities. It achieves this by enforcing diversity through operational intrusions into recruitment, selection, and other personnel functions and practices in America. Originally, Affirmative Action arose because of President Lyndon B. Johnson’s desire to integrate society on educationalRead MoreAffirmative Action: Equality for All? Essay1741 Words   |  7 PagesAffirmative Action: Equality for All? Affirmative action in the United States has become a misused and misguided practice in modern times. In the current form of affirmative action, it is impossible to create a truly equal society. It was originally used as an equal opportunity measure to allow qualified minorities into positions they were denied because of race. However, affirmative action has become a system of racial quotas that lowers standards for minority applicants in order to give them